Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and its Compounds

In the previous chapter i.e chapter 3, we learned many interesting things about metals and non-metals. In class 10 science chapter 4 carbon and its compounds, we are going to learn about carbon and its interesting properties.

Do you know that all of the living structures are carbon bases? However, all non-living things like your clothes, medicines you eat, books you read, etc all of these are made up of carbon. So, in general terms carbon is everywhere around us.

So, in this chapter, we are going to learn all the important things about carbon like its bonding, nature, different properties, etc. So make sure to read the full article as it will help you to understand things in a much better way.

Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and its Compounds

We will begin with bonding and the nature of carbon, and slowly but surely proceed to other topics. Pay close attention to class 10 science chapter 4 carbon and its compounds and towards all the definitions and facts, they are the ones that will help you score good marks in board exams.

What is Carbon?

Carbon is a chemical element like hydrogen and oxygen, also it has atomic number 6 in the periodic table. Carbon makes only 0.025% of the earth’s crust.

# Bonding in Carbon

In the previous chapter, we have already discussed the properties of ionic compounds. We also learned that carbon compounds are poor conductors of electricity. However, we also learned that these compounds have low melting and boiling point.

We know that elements have the tendency to balance their outermost shell, or, we can say that to get the noble gas configuration. So, in carbon, it has 4 electrons in its outermost shell. Now, carbon has to either gain or lose its electron from the outer shell.

If carbon gains 4 electrons then it will become C- (anion). If carbon loses 4 electrons then it will become C+ (cations). But nuclear carbon is small which faces the problem of gaining and losing this many electrons at once.

So, to overcome this problem we have to combine carbon with other atoms. By this carbon is able to share its valance electron with the other atoms. Not just carbon many other elements share their valance electron to form other elements.

Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and its Compounds

Here in this section of Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and its Compounds we will discuss mainly the versatile nature of carbon i.e. Tetravalency and Catenation.

# Nature of Carbon

Basically, most things are made up of carbon as a matter of fact we ourselves are made up of carbon. Now let’s talk about the 2 different properties:

1. Tetravalent

First, let’s know what tetravalent means. So, Tetra means 4 and Valent means valency. In other words, it means an element that is capable of bonding with 4 different atoms of carbon or other elements.

Most of the time carbons are combined with hydrogen but they may also combine with other elements like Cl, F, N, O, I, S. Now after these elements are combined with carbon it shows the property of the functional group that is combined with it.

2. Catenation

When carbon forms the chain-like branch, straight line, and cyclic, or sometimes a combination of these is known as catenation. In other words, because of this property carbon forms a single covalent bond with alike atoms and also forms ‘n’ number of bonds with other elements too.

However, Silicon also has the property of catenation but not like carbon.

# Saturated Carbon Compounds

Carbon makes the bond with 4 atoms with a single bond such as C-C-C-C. Saturated means you cannot do the addition of different atoms in the compound which is combined using a single bond. e.g. Alkane

# Unsaturated Carbon Compounds

Carbon can make bonds with only 2 or 3 atoms while using double or triple bonds such as C-C=C or C≡C. Unsaturated means you can add more atoms in this compound by breaking the double or triple bond between the 2 atoms. e.g. Alkene, Alkeyene

Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and its Compounds

In this section of Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and its Compounds, we are going to learn about the Homologous series.

# Homologeous Series

This is known as we made the series by using 1 general formula. In other words series of similar compounds in which all compounds contain similar chemical properties and are different in their molecular formula by -CH2

Example: C_nH_{2n+2}

Compounds with the difference of -CH2 are: CH_4, C_2H_6, C_3H_8, C_4H_{10}, C_5H_{12}

# Properties of Homologous Series

Here we listed all the properties of the homologous series.

  • All the compounds which come under this have the same general formula
  • All the compounds have a difference of -CH2 between them which are coming in a consecutive manner.
  • These compounds have the same chemical properties but have different physical properties. As the molecular mass increases there is some changes in physical properties were seen. This is because when their molecular mass kept increasing, then their melting and boiling point also kept increasing.
  • For all of these have the same functional group.

Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and its Compounds

Nomenclature is an important aspect of science and especially chemistry. So, in this section, we are going to learn about the Nomenclature of Carbon.

# Nomenclature

It is a system of names or rules to follow so that you can name the element properly. So, to name the carbon compounds there are some rules which you have to follow.

  1. Name of Carbon according to carbon atoms present in the compound, see the table below:
    Carbon atoms Name of the compound
    C1 Meth
    C2 Eth
    C3 Pro
    C4 But
    C5 Pent
    C6 Hex
    C7 Hept
    C8 Oct
    C9 Non
    C10 Dec
  2. In case, there is a functional group then, it indicates in the name of the compound either on prefix or suffix such as Alcohol have the suffix -ol (Propanol) C_3H_7-OH
  3. If the functional group work as a suffix & that suffix begins with any vowel “a, e, i, o, u” then we have to delete the (e) which is at the last in the name of an element. Such as: Propane = propan + one = propanone.
  4. If the carbon chain is unsaturated, then at the end of the compound name you have to add ‘ene’ or ‘yne’ in place of ‘one’. Such as Propene ⇒ Propyne.

Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and its Compounds

Now that we have covered the bonding and nomenclature of carbon, let’s move on to discuss the chemical properties of carbon. In class 10 science chapter 4 carbon and its compounds, we will learn that there are mainly 4 chemical properties present in the carbon i.e.

  • Combustion
  • Oxidation
  • Addition
  • Substitution

# Combustion

It’s a chemical process in which a substance burns and produces heat and light in an excessive amount out it. However, we need oxygen to burn the substance. In other words, if we are in a space where there is no oxygen we can’t burn anything.

Although, to burn the substance we need to build the particular ignition temperature of the substance e.g. Cooking oil, Petrol, Kerosene, Wood, etc.

# Oxidation

As we already discuss this property in 1st chapter, we all know that carbon compounds can easily oxidize. We already learned that some of the compounds are able to add oxygen to the other compounds as well. Which we have also known as an oxidizing agent.

In simpler terms, we can say that the addition of oxygen or removal of hydrogen from a compound is known as oxidation.

# Addition

In this reaction, there is an addition of a hydrogen molecule to an unsaturated element of carbon compound takes place. However, this process is done in the presence of a catalyst.

What is a catalyst?

These are substances that can change the rate of a reaction which means they can make a reaction process slow or fast. However, in the reaction catalyst is not consumed and they remain unchanged afterward.

Example: Hydrogen peroxide decomposes into 2 different elements i.e. Hydrogen and Oxygen by using a catalyst i.e. potassium permanganate.

Equation: H_2O_2\ \rightarrow\ H_2O\ +\ O

# Substitution

This is also known as a replacement reaction in this an atom or a group of atoms are replaced by another atom. Look at the equation down below.

Equation: CH_4\ +\ Cl_2\ \rightarrow\ CH_3Cl\ +\ HCl

Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and its Compounds

There are some carbon compounds that are important from an exam perspective. So, In this section of Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and its Compounds, we are going to learn about some important carbon compounds i.e. ethanol and ethanoic acid.

# Ethanol

It is commonly known as alcohol. It is a renewable fuel made from various pants materials also known as biomass. This is found in all alcoholic drinks. However, not just alcohol it is also used in various medications such as cough syrup, tincture iodine, and many more.

Also, this chemical is also used in various cosmetics and personal care products. It is because ethanol is very effective in killing various bacteria, fungi, viruses, etc. More use of ethanol is present in food, household products, fuel, etc.

Equation of ethanol reaction with sodium given down below.

Equation: 2Na\ +\ 2CH_3CH_2OH\ \rightarrow\ 2CH_3CH_2ONa\ +\ H_2

# Ethanoic Acid

Ethanoic acid is also known as acetic acid. It is mainly used as food preservatives and food additives. However, it is produced by fermentation and oxidation of natural carbohydrates also known as vinegar, salt, ester.

Its melting point is 290K or 16.6°C and because of that, this is also known as glacial acetic acid. The equation of ethanoic acid with a base is given below.

Equation: NaOH\ +\ CH_3COOH\ \rightarrow\ CH_3COONa\ +\ H_2O

Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and its Compounds

We are very familiar with soaps and detergents, we see them every day sitting there in our bathrooms. In this section, we are going to learn about the soaps and detergents i.e their chemical formulas, and how are they made.

# Soaps

It is basically the several combinations of sodium or potassium salt. In other words, we can say that molecule of soap is a sodium or a potassium salt of the long chain of carboxylic acid. It works like a magnet between dirt and water.

It has 2 parts in it i.e. hydrophobic and hydrophilic. The hydrophobic part is attached to dirt and the hydrophilic part is attached to water. When we add soap into water it forms a substance called Micelle.

Micelle stays as a colloid in the water solution. It doesn’t precipitate in the water. On washing dirt with water-dirt removes along with the micelle. When soap combines with Calcium or Magnesium it gives the product scum. Calcium and Magnesium are the main reason for water hardness.

Equation of Soap is: R-COONa

Equation of Scum is: Soap + Ca/Mg Salts → Scum

# Detergents

Detergents are considered a better cleansing product than soap. They are ammonium and sulfate salts. Also, unlike soap, they don’t form an insoluble precipitate with Calcium (Ca) or Magnesium (Mg).

They are effective in hard water as compared to soaps. They are used in making different cleansing products such as Shampoo, and also washing detergent. The equation of detergent is given below:

Equation of Detergent is: C_{18}H_{29}NaO_3S

Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and its Compounds Blueprint
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Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and its Compounds Blueprint 2021-22

 

Updated: January 5, 2022 — 5:03 am

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