January 18, 2022

Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Process

Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Process. In this chapter, we are going to learn about the life process and its types. Also, we get to know that what are different types of living organisms are and what are their types.

But, first, we have to know about the difference between living and non-living organisms. We do this by finding some sort of movement in it.

You are wondering what are these movements we talking about? So, these movements are any growth-related or movement of the molecule that is happening on a very small scale that is not visible to the naked eye.

Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Process

In this section of Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Process, we are going to learn about the Life process and its types.

First, there is a question that occurs from the above paragraph about the living organisms that:

Q. Viruses are Dead or Alive?

So, normally they don’t show any kind of movement in them until unless they touch or get in contact with any kind of cell. Whether it’s human or animal. When they enter into the cell of animals or humans they became very active.

So, some scientists say they are alive and some say otherwise, that is why this is a controversial question.

Q. Why are the movement of the molecule is needed for life?

This is because living organisms have many cells which form tissues and many tissues make organs that are essential for living organisms. Although, due to the change in environment our organized structure keeps breaking down. So, for doing repairing and maintaining we need molecule movement.

# Life Process

Let’s know about the life process in detail.

Q. What is Life Process?

Life processes are those that do the work of repair and maintenance in a body.

Q. Which are the life processes that work as repair and maintenance in the body?

So there are a total of 4 life processes i.e nutrition, respiration, transportation, and excretion.

There are also living organisms with no organs at all. There are no organs in single-cell organisms. So, if there is no organ here, so how does the life process work in it?

So to do all this work, they use another process named Diffusion. Diffusion means the movement of molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration. In other words, in an area where the molecules are present in high quantity, will move to the area with fewer molecules.

Q. Why human body is not able to perform diffusion?

It is because we are multi-cellular organisms and our organs are not in direct contact with the environment, unlike single-cell organisms. This is why simple diffusion will not fulfill our requirements.

Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Process

In this section of Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Process, we are going to learn about the Nutrition

# Nutrition

By the food we eat, we get 2 things, first the energy from which we work and perform different functions of our body and second material which is useful for our growth.

So on the basis of nutrition, we can divide living organisms into 2 categories, first is autotrophs which make their own food such as plants and some bacteria and the second is heterotrophs which depend on other organisms for their own food such as animals and fungi.

# Autotropic Nutrition

All the autotrophs use simple food materials which are obtained from carbon dioxide and water also known as inorganic sources. They can make their food through a process known as photosynthesis. Examples of autotrophs are plants, trees, algae, and some bacteria.

Q. What is Photosynthesis?

It is a process which is done by plants in order to prepare their own food using carbon dioxide and water in presence of chlorophyll and sunlight. During this process, oxygen is also released as a byproduct see the equation below.

Equation: 6CO_2\ +\ 12H_2O\ \rightarrow\ C_6H_{12}O_6\ + \6O_2\ + \6H_2O


  • C6H12O6 → Glucose
  • CO2 → Carbon Dioxide
  • O2 → Oxygen
  • H2O → Water

Some events during photosynthesis are given below:

  1. Chlorophyll which is found in the leaves absorbs light energy.
  2. It converts the light energy into chemical energy and the water molecule splits into hydrogen and oxygen.
  3. Reduction of carbon dioxide into carbohydrates, as Hydrogen is added in carbon dioxide. As we already learn in the previous chapters the addition of hydrogen is known as reduction.

Although, it’s not important that these steps are followed in this sequence only. Like, desert plants, they absorb carbon dioxide at night and make it as an intermediate product and when the day sunlight hits them they convert this into chlorophyll.

Q. Where does chlorophyll take place?

It takes place in the green pores which are present in the leaf called cell organelles are known as Chloroplast.

Q. How the plant obtains Carbon Dioxide?

Plants obtain carbon dioxide from tiny pores called stomata.

Let’s learn more about the stomata. In the lower epidermis of plants, there is a gap between 2 guard cells known as stomata. However, stomata are present in both the upper and lower epidermis but the lower epidermis contains big stomata.

Stomata are tiny pores that help plants exchange the gasses. However, the gaseous exchange is not only done through stomata. Its also done through stem, roots, and leaf. Although, from these stomata, water was also extracted. So, the job of opening and closing the stomata is on the guard cells.

Plants also need some raw materials other than carbon dioxide gas like water, nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, and magnesium. So, they take these things from the soil.

Q. How do plants get nitrogen gas?

Plants have 2 methods to get nitrogen from the environment both are listed below.

  1. They can take it in the form of nitrates or nitrites, when there is lightning or thunder then some nitrates are formed in the atmosphere and fall into the soil. After that the plants absorb them.
  2. Some plants have special bacteria such as Rhizobium. So, rhizobium does that they convert the atmospheric nitrogen into organic compounds and after that plants take it from there.

Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Process

In this section of Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Process, we are going to learn about Heterotrophic Nutrition and human nutrition

# Hetrotropic Nutrition

The mode of nutrition used by a heterotroph is called Heterotrophic nutrition. It is of 3 types i.e. saprotrophic, holozoic, and parasitic.

1. Saprotrophic Nutrition

In this, they break their food outside to the body and then absorb it this mode is called saprotrophic nutrition such as fungi.

2. Holozoic Nutrition

In this organisms take food inside the body and then break it inside the body such as humans, amoeba, etc.

3. Parasitic Nutrition

These organisms take their food from plants and animals without killing them such as ticks, lice, leeches, etc.

Q. How do amoeba obtain its nutrition?

Whenever the amoeba sees food around it, It tries to capture the food by making the finger-like extension around it to capture it. The finger-like extension known as pseudopodia makes a food vacuole where the food breaks down and then slowly absorbs it.

# Nutrition in Human Beings

We use a long tube which is extending from mouth to anus known as the alimentary canal. It also has many parts which perform many different functions. Let’s know about these parts separately down in the article.

1. Mouth

In this part, we break down our food in small particles using teeth also our food is wet inside our mouth but not with water but with saliva released by the salivary glands. In our saliva, it has enzymes in it. So, the enzyme’s work is to break down the starch into simple sugar.

Now after this our food moves down in the body and this movement is called peristaltic which means food move inside our body in a slow manner, until it goes all the way down.

2. Stomach

It contains 3 things in it i.e. Hydrochloric acid, pepsin, and mucus. Let’s understand this completely down in the article.

# Hydrochloric Acid

  1. It provides an acidic medium and that’s why pepsin does its work properly.
  2. If there are any bacteria in the food, it kills it.

# Pepsin

It digests all the proteins present in the food.

# Mucus

It protects the inner lining of the stomach from acid.

There is a muscle present at the end of our stomach named sphincter muscle. It releases the food in a small amount from the stomach to the next volume cell i.e. small intestine.

Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Process

In this section of Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Process, we are going to learn about the small and large intestine

3. Small Intestine

It is the longest part of the alimentary canal. However, herbivores have longer small intestine because grass contains callous and it needs a longer time to digest. On the other hand, Carnivores have a small intestine as they eat mainly meat which is easier to digest.

In this, there are 3 things that completely digest i.e. carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. So, the liver and pancreas also release their secretion in the small intestine for digestion. As liver produces “Bile Juice” which makes acidic food released from the stomach into alkaline and breaks down the fats.

However, the process of breaking fat is known as the emulsification of fats. The fat which is broken by this is known as emulsified fat. Now the pancreatic juice contains enzymes like trypsin and lipase.

So, trypsin work is to digest the proteins, and lipase work is to break down the emulsified fats. In the small intestine, there is already an enzyme is presently known as intestine juice, their work is to break down the protein to amino acid and carbohydrate into glucose and fats into fatty acids and glycerol.

Our small intestine has a finger-like projection known as villi. Villi contain an excessive amount of blood vessels. It also increases the surface area and takes the absorbed food to each cell of the body where we used glucose for energy, repair, and maintenance of new and old tissues.

Q. Where does complete digestion takes place in the body?

It takes place in the small intestine.

4. Large Intestine

Now, our food goes to the large intestine, and here only work is done i.e. absorption of water and the rest of the material released out through the anus.

5. Anus

It regulates the waste material with the help of the anus sphincter.

Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Process

In this section of Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Process, we are going to learn about Respiration.

# Respiration

It is divided into 2 parts i.e. Breathing and cellular respiration. The cellular respiration work is to absorb the oxygen from the inhaled air and take it in the blood vessel and provide it to every cell of the body after that energy is released from the cells.

To take energy from glucose, every organism has a different process but there is a process that is the same for all of the organisms and that is, every organism converts glucose (a 6-carbon molecule) into Pyruvate (a 3-carbon molecule). All this takes place in the cytoplasm, and after this step, every organism has its own process.

Now discuss the different organisms down in the article.

1. Yeast

They convert pyruvate into ethanol, Carbon dioxide, and energy in the absence of oxygen. This process is called anaerobic respiration.

2. Mitochondria

They convert pyruvate into Carbon dioxide, water, and energy in the presence of oxygen. This process is called aerobic respiration. Although in Class 9 you already studied that Mitochondria is also known as powerhouse or kitchen of the cell.

3. Our Muscle Cells

It converts pyruvate into lactic acid and energy in a lack of oxygen.

Q. What is the difference between Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration?

Aerobic Anaerobic
It takes place in mitochondria It takes place in yeast
It is done in the presence of oxygen It is done in the absence of oxygen
In this process, there is more energy released In this process, there is less energy released

All the energy which is released during the process is used to make a molecule named ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate). ATP is also known as energy currency used for cellular processes.

Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Process

In this section of Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Process, we are going to learn about Respiration in Plants, Animals, and Human beings

#  Respiration in Plants

In plants, as we know that they use photosynthesis and respiration. For doing the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide according to the environmental condition they use a process named diffusion. Like, they do photosynthesis in the day and at night they mainly focused on respiration.

During the day oxygen is released and during the night carbon dioxide is released. That is why we don’t prefer sleeping under a tree at night.

# Respiration in Animals

They are divided into 2 categories i.e. terrestrial ( Land animals) and aquatic ( Water animals). So, terrestrial animals use an organ for the process of respiration like our lungs. They use atmospheric oxygen which is 21% in the atmosphere.

But in the water, there is only 5mg oxygen which is used by aquatic animals and that’s why terrestrial animals’ breathing rate is 12-20 times/minute. But aquatic animals’ breathing rate is 90-100 times/minute.

# Respiration in Human Beings

We take air through our nostrils, where the air is filtered by nostril hairs and its passage is also lined by mucus and after crossing the nostril, the air goes from the throat to the lungs. So, our windpipe is made up of a ring of cartilage, so that the passage doesn’t collapse.

Now, the passage divides into 2 parts in the lungs named Bronchi and it further divides into bronchioles. So, the bronchioles end part looks like a balloon structure known as Alveoli. In alveoli, there is an exchange of gasses takes place on its surface.

In alveoli, there is a network of blood vessels which is also known as alveolar blood vessels. So, all the carbon dioxide of the body releases into the alveoli, and the oxygen which is present in the alveoli is taken by the blood and transported to all cells of the body.

However, this is also a residual volume of air present in the lungs. So, it gives enough time for oxygen to be absorbed and carbon dioxide to be released. In our body the oxygen is transported through hemoglobin and carbon dioxide is transported through soluble in water.

Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Process

In this section of Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Process, we are going to learn about Transportation in human beings.

# Transportation

In this section, we are going to learn about the transportation process in human beings.

# In Human

Blood is a tissue, which does work of transports food, oxygen, and waste material. It consists of 3 different cells in it i.e. RBC ( Red Blood Cells), WBC ( White Blood Cells), and Blood Platelets. Oxygen is carried by RBC respiratory pigment. So, we need some pumping organs to push the blood around the body.

# Our Pump – The Heart

Its size is equal to your fist. There are 2 types of blood flows in the heart i.e. oxygen-rich blood (oxygenated blood) and de-oxygenated blood. Oxygenated blood has more oxygen than carbon dioxide and De-oxygenated blood has more carbon dioxide than oxygen.

So, our heart has 4 chambers so that this blood doesn’t mix together. The upper 2 chambers of the heart are known as the atrium and the lower 2 chambers are known as verticles. So, the heart produces de-oxygenated blood in the lungs, their this blood is converted into oxygen and again supplied back to the heart, which is later transported to all cells of the body.

# Process of blood movement inside the Heart

Oxygen-rich blood comes in the left atrium which has a thin wall. Now, when blood is coming in the left atrium then this chamber relaxes and makes space for blood, although it contracts when it releases blood to the left ventricle, and now the left ventricle relaxes.

When the left ventricle contracts, then the blood flows in the rest of the body, and after that blood becomes the de-oxygenated blood and goes in the right atrium, and then it sends the blood in the right ventricle and after that to the lungs where it becomes oxygen-rich.

Now, it goes in the left atrium, then left verticle, and after that to the different parts of the body and then goes again in the right atrium, then right ventricle then again to the lungs and this process goes on and on.

# The Tubes – Blood Vessels

Arteries are the blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to the organs and veins are the blood vessels that bring blood back from the organs to the heart.

The walls of the artery are thick. Because the blood flows very fast in it and for this reason, it does not burst, hence its walls are thick. Veins have valves so that blood can only flow in one direction.

When the artery reaches an organ or tissue, it starts dividing from there. We call those tiny blood vessels the capillaries. Its advantage is that these blood vessels reach each of our organs and can deliver blood. And when there is more carbon dioxide in the blood, then all these blood vessels combine to form veins.

Q. What is the difference between Arteris and Veins?

Arteris Viens
DIsturbing vessels Collecting vessel
Pink in color Red in color
In deep location inside the body Superficial in location, can be seen on the surface of the body
Blood flow with high pressure Blood flow with low pressure
The Wall of the artery is strong, thick, and elastic The Wall of the vein is weak, thin, and non-elastic
All arteries carry oxygenated blood except pulmonary arteries All veins carry deoxygenated blood except pulmonary veins
Internal valves are absent Internal valves are present

# Platelets

If there is a leak in our body, then due to it there will be 2 types of loss from our body, first of blood and second of pressure. So to prevent this, there are platelets cells in our body.

There are blood platelets in our blood that keep on circling, due to which, and as soon as there is any leakage, they stop that leakage.

# Lymph

There are small holes in the walls of the capillary, due to which some amount of plasma, protein, and blood vessels come out and come into the tissue and there it is called tissue fluid or lymph. It is similar to plasma, just colorless, and contains less protein.

Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Process

In this section of Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Process, we are going to learn about Transportation in plants.

# Transportation in Plants

So, if a plant is small and the difference between leaves and roots is less, then simply diffusion will work but if a plant is complex and the difference between leaves and roots is more then, they need a proper system.

# Transportation of Water

There are 2 methods used by plants for this.

1. Root Pressure

At the roots, when cells contact with soil, it takes up ions which creates a difference between roots and soil which is also called osmotic pressure. So, when we pour water on the soil it moves towards the root where the concentration of water is low due to osmotic pressure or root pressure. It happens mainly at night.

2. Transpiration

In this when water is vapourised from the small pores of the leaf of a plant then, they create a suction to pull water from xylem cells. It happens mainly during the day.

# Transportation of Food and Other Substance

So, the product of photosynthesis has to move in different-different parts of the plant. This movement is known as translocation. It is done due to vascular tissue known as phloem.

Q. What is the difference between Xylem and Phloem?

Transport in Xylem Transport in Phloem
Water and mineral are transported Food and other minerals like amino acids are transported
Water transported in an upward direction Food transported in both upward and downward direction
It occurs with the help of physical forces i.e. root pressure and transpiration It occurs with the help of energy in form of ATP.

Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Process

In this section of Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Process, we are going to learn about Excretion.

As we already discussed on how gaseous waste is removed from our body. So, the removal of harmful metabolic waste is known as excretion.

# Excretion in Human Beings

Our excretory system includes kidneys, pair of ureters, a urinary bladder, and a urethra. So, nitrogenous waste such as urea and uric acid which is present in the blood will be removed in the kidney used by the nephron.

Q. What is the structural and functional unit of the kidney?


Now, the re-absorption of water in the body depends on how much excess water is in the body and how much-dissolved water is to be excreted. After the re-absorption, the filtered water is known as urine. It connects with the ureter and due to this it goes from the kidney to the urinary bladder which is made up of muscular so, it is controllable by us.

# Excretion in Plants

In plants, they remove oxygen from photosynthesis and water from transpiration. Also released their waste from dead tissue cells. Also, they excretion from roots in the soil, and also they released waste through leaves that fall of.

Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Process

In this section of Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Process, we are going to see the blueprint and more important things related to this chapter.

To see Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Process blueprint down in the table.

Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Process
1 Marker 3 questions
2 Marker 1 question
3 Marker 1 question
4 Marker 1 question
Total questions 6
Total marks 12
Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Process Blueprint 2021-22

The total worth of Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Process in terms of the board exam. According to the table, this chapter contains 1 mark for 3 questions, 2 marks for 1 question, 3 marks for 1 question, and 4 marks for 1 question. Please note that this marking scheme may vary in board exams.

So, this is all the information you want to know about the Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Process. Hopefully, you liked our article on Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Process. If you have any doubts you can ask us in the comment section. We are here to help you out.

Hope we cover every important knowledge of Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Process. If we missed something let us know in the comment section.

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